The referendum will be held on Sunday, December 4, 2016. The italians will discuss who wants to change Italy by those who judge the referendum as the beginning of a dictatorship of a leftist government. To be valid, there is no need to reach a quorum; you do not need to go to vote 50 percent plus one of eligible voters. This is what provides the transformation of the institutional structure of the country.
Reform of the Senate, the end of perfect bicameralism:
The reform aims to overcome the perfect bicameralism that characterizes the Italian institutional framework. Currently all laws, both ordinary and constitutional, must be approved by both houses. Even confidence in the government must be granted both by deputies from both senators. With the reform, however, the House of Representatives becomes the only body elected by the citizens by direct universal suffrage and the only assembly that will have to approve ordinary laws and budget and give confidence to the government.
The Senate becomes a representative body of local self-government (will be called the Senate of the Regions), composed by one hundred senators (instead of the current 315) will not be directly elected by citizens. In fact, 95 of them will be chosen by regional councils that are appointed by a proportional method: 21 mayors (one per region, excluding the Trentino-Alto Adige, which will appoint two) and 74 councilors (at least two per region, in proportion to the population and to the votes obtained by the parties). These 95 senators shall hold office for the duration of their mandate as local administrators.
To these, they will add five senators appointed by the president of the republic who will remain in office for seven years. Will no longer be so appointed senators for life, a position it remains valid only for former presidents of the Republic. The five senators for life (Giorgio Napolitano, Mario Monti, Carlo Rubbia, Renzo Piano and Elena Cattaneo) remain in office but will not be replaced. The senators are no longer paid by the Senate, but only perceive the salary as administrators.
The Senate will give opinions on draft laws approved by the chamber and will propose amendments within thirty days of the approval of the law, but the room will also not accept amendments. The senators will continue to participate for the election of the President of the Republic, the members of the State Judicial Council and the Constitutional Court judges, but the main function of the Senate will be to exercise a function as a link between the state, regions and municipalities.
Election of the President of the Republic:
The election of the President of the Republic will not participate in more regional delegates, but only rooms in joint session. It will require a majority of two thirds of the members up to the fourth ballot, then suffice three fifths; only the seventh ballot, just a majority of three fifths of voters (the fourth ballot is enough for the absolute majority of members).
Abolition of the National Council for Economy and Labour (Cnel):
The Cnel currently consists of 64 directors and is a subsidiary body required by the Constitution which has a consultative role with regard to the laws on the economy and employment. The Constitution gives the Cnel also the legislative initiative. The Board may propose that the rooms of the laws in the economic field. The reform envisages the abolition Woods.
Title V of the Constitution and state / regional competences:
With the reform, about twenty subjects return to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state. Among them: the environment, the management of ports and airports, transport and navigation, energy production and distribution, employment policies, workplace safety, law professions.
Someone thinks that the referendum will lead to a dictatorship and others think that finally the Italians have a chance to drive away many politicians attached to their chair and privileges. The opposite of «yes» and «no» goes from right-wing parties to those on the left. The prime minister Matteo Renzi announced that with the victory of the «no», he will leave and ask for new elections. But with a government crisis, there will be an economic crisis?
Cucchi Massimiliano from Italy
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